Justice

Psa. 89:14 Justice and judgment are the habitation of thy throne: mercy and truth shall go before thy face.

Definitions:

1.  the quality of being just; righteousness, equitableness, or moral rightness:

5.  the administering of deserved punishment or reward.

Compare to Fairness

Fairness is hardwired into the human brain like the desire for food

Fairness is relative, Justice is absolute/foundational.

Fairness is subjective, Justice is objective.

If you demand justice (and we all do), you demand it against yourself as well.

Our Sense of Justice is:

Universal - Consensus - Social Contract

Acts 28:3 And when Paul had gathered a bundle of sticks, and laid them on the fire, there came a viper out of the heat, and fastened on his hand. 4 And when the barbarians saw the venomous beast hang on his hand, they said among themselves, No doubt this man is a murderer, whom, though he hath escaped the sea, yet vengeance suffereth not to live.

Karma (Hinduism, Buddhism, etc.): the spiritual principle of cause and effect where intent and actions of an individual (cause) influence the future of that individual (effect), both in this life and the next. The error here is that there is no natural law that makes this happen. Only a God of Judgment makes it happen. And often he defers or delays judgment for his own reasons. The law of harvest is similar to Karma, but the law of harvest works only without interference - drought, war, thieves, enemies can all thwart the law of harvest.

Natural - Intuitional - a Rational Sense - among:

Aesthetics: the intuition of beauty (harmony, balance, absence of defects)

                                delight (joy, pleasure, sport, fulfillment)

Empathy: the intuition of identity (self, society, love, hate)

Ethics: the intuition of duty (virtue, morality, fairness, gratitude, shame)

Justice: the intuition of merit (rights, vengeance, debt, guilt)

Humor: the intuition of irony? (awareness, understanding, relief)

 

                Consider which is murder:

Animal kills animal

Animal kills man

Human kills animal

Man kills man

Only one is murder because both duty and merit must apply. Animals have neither duty nor merit, man has both, the duty to do right, and the merit to be done right.

1.  God is a God of Justice

His Nature

Gen. 18:25         Shall not the Judge of all the earth do right?

Psa. 50:6             And the heavens shall declare his righteousness: for God is judge himself. Selah.

Zeph. 3:5            The just LORD is in the midst thereof; he will not do iniquity:

Zech. 9:9            thy King cometh unto thee: he is just, and having salvation; lowly,

His Way

Gen. 18:19          they shall keep the way of the LORD, to do justice and judgment;

Deut. 32:4        for all his ways are judgment: a God of truth and without iniquity, just and right is he.

Deut. 33:21       {about tribe of Gad} he executed the justice of the LORD, and his judgments with Israel.

Psa. 89:14          Justice and judgment are the habitation of thy throne:

His Judgment - Wisdom - Discernment

Neh. 9:33           thou art just in all that is brought upon us; thou hast done right, but we have done wickedly:

Psa. 98:9            for he cometh to judge the earth: with righteousness shall he judge, and with equity.

Prov. 16:11         A just weight and balance are the LORD'S: all the weights of the bag are his work.

Lev. 19:35          Ye shall do no unrighteousness in judgment, in meteyard, in weight, or in measure.

                36          Just balances, just weights, a just ephah, and a just hin, shall ye have: I am the LORD

Deut. 25:13        Thou shalt not have in thy bag divers weights, a great and a small.

                14          Thou shalt not have in thine house divers measures, a great and a small.

                15          But thou shalt have a perfect and just weight, a perfect and just measure shalt thou have

 

Prov. 20:10        Divers weights, and divers measures, both of them are alike abomination to the LORD.

                23          Divers weights are an abomination unto the LORD; and a false balance is not good.

Isa. 9:7                to establish it with judgment and with justice for ever. The zeal of the LORD will perform this.

Isa. 56:1              Keep ye judgment, and do justice: for my salvation is near, and my righteousness revealed.

Jer. 23:5             a King shall reign and prosper, and shall execute judgment and justice in the earth.

His Delight

Prov. 11:1            A false balance is abomination to the LORD: but a just weight is his delight.

Jer. 9:24             I am the LORD which exercise judgment, and righteousness: for in these things I delight,

Jer. 31:23           The LORD bless thee, O habitation of justice, and mountain of holiness.

 

2.  God expects us to serve the interests of Justice

Justice System Instituted and Required by God

Gen. 9:5              your blood of your lives will I require; at hand of beast will I require it, at the hand of man;

                6             Whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man shall his blood be shed:

Exo. 21:12          He that smiteth a man, so that he die, shall be surely put to death.

Lev. 24:17          And he that killeth any man shall surely be put to death.

2Chr. 19:6          And said to the judges, Take heed what ye do: for ye judge not for man, but for the LORD

Job 29:12           Because I delivered the poor that cried, and the fatherless, and him that had none to help

                13          blessing of him was ready to perish came upon me: and I caused the widow to sing for joy.

                14           I put on righteousness, and it clothed me: my judgment was as a robe and a diadem.

                15           I was eyes to the blind, and feet was I to the lame.

                16          I was a father to the poor: and the cause which I knew not I searched out.

                17           And I brake the jaws of the wicked, and plucked the spoil out of his teeth.

Psalms 82:3      Defend the poor and fatherless: do justice to the afflicted and needy.

Pro. 21:3             To do justice and judgment is more acceptable to the LORD than sacrifice.

Pro. 24:11           If thou forbear to deliver them that are drawn unto death, and that are ready to be slain;

                12          If thou sayest, Behold, we knew it not; doth not he that pondereth the heart consider it?

Isaiah 1:17          seek judgment, relieve the oppressed, judge the fatherless, plead for the widow.

Jer. 7:5                For if ye throughly execute judgment between a man and his neighbour;

                6           If ye oppress not the stranger, the fatherless, and the widow, and shed not innocent blood

                7             Then will I cause you to dwell in this place... for ever and ever

Amos 5:24         But let judgment run down as waters, and righteousness as a mighty stream.

Justice is Tricky (be careful to not be too zealous, remember thyself)

H. L. Mencken: Injustice is relatively easy to bear; what stings is justice.

Mat. 7:1-2           Judge not, that ye be not judged. For with what judgment ye judge, ye shall be judged: and with what measure ye mete, it shall be measured to you again.

Rom. 2:1             Therefore thou art inexcusable, O man, whosoever thou art that judgest: for wherein thou judgest another, thou condemnest thyself; for thou that judgest doest the same things.

Gal. 6:1                Brethren, if a man be overtaken in a fault, ye which are spiritual, restore such an one in the spirit of meekness; considering thyself, lest thou also be tempted.

Proposed Purposes of the Justice System

Punitive - Retributive - Retaliatory - Vindictive

Protective - Incapacitating or Limiting power to re-offend

Deterrent - Diminishing willingness to offend

Rehabilative - Redemptive - Improving character - giving offenders opportunity to resolve guilt

Restitutive - Reparative - Compensative - Restorative

Denunciative - Public Interest - Instructive to others -

                Abstract Justice worthy in itself (really just the Fear of God)

Modern Justice Theory (Legitimate, Procedural, Codified, Applied/Executed)

The Bible anticipated and presaged modern Justice, and perhaps was even instrumental in developing it. There is really nothing modern about it.

A. Legitimate

Authentic (many powers are illegitimate, tyranny, enslavement, etc.  It is not an easy thing to know.)

Exo. 18:25        And Moses chose able men out of all Israel, and made them heads

                26         And they judged the people at all seasons:

Deut. 1:15           the chief of your tribes, wise men, and known, and made them heads

Deut. 16:18        Judges and officers shalt thou make thee in all thy gates

Judg. 2:16         Nevertheless the LORD raised up judges

2Sam 7:11           And as since the time that I commanded judges to be over my people Israel

2Chr. 19:5          And he set judges in the land throughout all the fenced cities of Judah,

Acts 13:20         And after that he gave unto them judges

Pro. 21:1            The king's heart is in the hand of the LORD: he turneth it whithersoever he will.

Isa. 45:1            Thus saith the LORD to his anointed, to Cyrus, to subdue nations before him;

Ezek. 45:9          O princes of Israel: remove violence and spoil, and execute judgment and justice,

Ezra 1:2             Cyrus king of Persia, The LORD God of heaven hath given me all the kingdoms

Daniel 2:37     Thou, O king, art a king of kings: for the God of heaven hath given thee a kingdom

Mat. 22:17        Tell us therefore, What thinkest thou? Is it lawful to give tribute unto Caesar, or not?

Mat. 22:21        Render unto Caesar things which are Caesar's; unto God things that are God's.

John 19:11        Thou couldest have no power against me, except it were given thee from above

Rom. 13:1           the powers that be are ordained of God.

                2            Whosoever therefore resisteth the power, resisteth the ordinance of God:

Titus 3:1            to be subject to principalities and powers, to obey magistrates

1Pet. 2:13          Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man for the Lord's sake:

                14          sent by him for the punishment of evildoers,

2Pet. 2:10         and despise government. Presumptuous are they, selfwilled,

Appropriate - Without Hypocrisy

1Sam. 8:1-3        when Samuel was old, that he made his sons judges over Israel.

                2            they were judges in Beersheba.

                3            And his sons walked not in his ways, ...and perverted judgment.

2Sam. 23:3        He that ruleth over men must be just, ruling in the fear of God.

1Ki. 10:9             therefore made he thee king, to do judgment and justice.

Psa. 50:16           But unto the wicked God saith, What hast thou to do to declare my statutes

                17           Seeing thou hatest instruction, and castest my words behind thee.

                18          When thou sawest a thief, then thou consentedst with him,

                19          Thou givest thy mouth to evil, and thy tongue frameth deceit.

                20          Thou sittest and speakest against thy brother; thou slanderest

Mat. 7:3              why beholdest the mote in brother's eye, but considerest not the beam in thine eye?

                4            Or how wilt thou say to thy brother, Let me pull out the mote out of thine eye;

                5             Thou hypocrite, first cast out the beam out of thine own eye;

John 8:7             He that is without sin among you, let him first cast a stone at her.

Rom. 2:1             thou condemnest thyself; for thou that judgest doest the same things.

Rom. 3:4            That thou mightiest be justified in thy sayings , and overcome when thou art judged.

B.  Procedural

Logical - others should be able to follow the logic

Job 13:18            Behold now, I have ordered my cause; I know that I shall be justified.

Job 23:3             Oh that I knew where I might find him! that I might come even to his seat!

                4            I would order my cause before him, and fill my mouth with arguments.

Job 31:35           Oh that one would hear me! that the Almighty answer me, that adversary had written a book.

                36          Surely I would take it upon my shoulder, and bind it as a crown to me.

                37          I would declare unto him the number of my steps; as a prince would I go near unto him.

Isa. 41:21            Produce your cause, saith the LORD; bring forth your strong reasons,

Reasonable - Rational - (Not Emotional, Rash)

Judgment has two phases, Discernment and Recompence, or Guilt/Innocence and Punishment, and as we will see, emotion does play a part in punishment, but not in discernment to arrive at truth and levels of responsibility.

1Sam 2:3            for the LORD is a God of knowledge, and by him actions are weighed.

Isa. 43:9             bring forth their witnesses, that they be justified: or let them hear, and say, It is truth.

Isa. 43:26           Put me in remembrance: let us plead together: declare thou, that thou mayest be justified.

Micah 6:1            Arise, contend thou before the mountains, and let the hills hear thy voice.

                2             for the LORD hath a controversy with his people, and he will plead with Israel.

Rom. 3:19          every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may become guilty before God.

Luke 19:22        Out of thine own mouth will I judge thee, thou wicked servant

Comprehensive - taking all into account

Deut. 19:16        If a false witness rise up against any man to testify against him that which is wrong;

                17           Then both the men, shall stand before the priests and the judges, in those days;

                18          And the judges shall make diligent inquisition:

                19          Then shall ye do unto him, as he had thought to have done unto his brother:

John 7:51            Doth our law judge any man, before it hear him, and know what he doeth?

Acts 25:16          accused have the accusers face to face, and licence to answer for himself

C.  Codified

Based on Commonly Recognized Law - written and published beforehand

Exo. 24:12         I will give ... commandments which I have written; that thou mayest teach them.

Exo. 31:18          And he gave unto Moses, two tables of stone, written with the finger of God.

Exo. 32:15          the tables were written on both their sides;

                16          And the tables were the work of God, and the writing was the writing of God,

Deut. 17:10        And thou shalt do according to the sentence, do according to all that they inform thee:

                11           According to the sentence of the law which they shall teach thee,

Job 31:35           Oh that the Almighty would answer me, and that mine adversary had written a book.

Ezek. 44:24       and they shall judge it according to my judgments: and they shall keep my laws

Prov. 24:12        If thou sayest, Behold, we knew it not; doth not he that pondereth the heart consider it?

John 12:48        the word that I have spoken, the same shall judge him in the last day.

Jude 1:15            to convince all that are ungodly among them of all their ungodly deeds

Daniel 7:10        the judgment was set, and the books were opened.

Rev. 20:12         And I saw the dead stand before God; and the books were opened: and the dead were judged out of those things which were written in the books, according to their works.

 

D.  Applied

Equally to all - Reciprocal - Work both ways

Deut. 1:17           ye shall hear the small as well as the great

Deut. 25:1          then they shall justify the righteous, and condemn the wicked.

Exo. 23:2           Thou shalt not follow a multitude to do evil; 

                3            Neither shalt thou countenance a poor man in his cause.

                6             Thou shalt not wrest the judgment of thy poor in his cause.

                7             and the innocent and righteous slay thou not: for I will not justify the wicked.

Proportionally

Gen. 49:7           Cursed be their anger, for it was fierce; and their wrath, for it was cruel

Deut. 19:6          while his heart is hot, and overtake himand slay him; he was not worthy of death

Deut. 22:26       unto the damsel thou shalt do nothing; there is in the damsel no sin worthy of death:

Prov. 27:3          A stone is heavy, and the sand weighty; but a fool's wrath is heavier than them both.

Esther 3:5          then was Haman full of wrath.

                6            And he thought scorn to lay hands on Mordecai alone;

2Sam 12:5          David's anger was greatly kindled against the man; the man shall surely die:

                6            And he shall restore the lamb fourfold, because he did this thing, and because he had no pity.

3.  God allows Injustice - True Justice does not exist in this life

Lord Bowen about an attempt at justice: I am reminded of a blind man in a dark room looking for a black hat which isn't there.

Finley Peter Dunn in "Mr. Dooley's Opinions": I tell ye Hogan's right when he says, "Justice is blind."  Blind she is, and deaf and dumb and has a wooden leg!

H.L.Mencken: Justice is not blind, nor is she evenhanded. The scales do not balance and they cannot be made to balance. Not, that is, until we are freed of our humanity and turned to demigods. And then justice will no longer be needed.

 

Justice is thwarted often. The wealthy often escape justice, the poor are often denied justice. The attempt at justice is noble, necessary and beneficial even when imperfect, and it is always imperfect. Standing against injustice must be by wisdom (pick your battles), but imperfect justice is all you can ever hope for anyway in this life. Still, you can see it afar off, and it gives you understanding about God's justice coming.

 

Job 4:7                [Eliphaz] who ever perished, being innocent? where were the righteous cut off?

                8            Even as I have seen, they that plow iniquity, and sow wickedness, reap the same.

Job 20:4             [Zophar] Knowest thou not this of old, since man was placed upon earth,

                5             That the triumphing of the wicked is short, and the joy of the hypocrite but for a moment?

                27          The heaven shall reveal his iniquity; and the earth shall rise up against him.

                28          The increase of his house shall depart, and his goods shall flow away in the day of his wrath.

                29          This is the portion of a wicked man from God, and the heritage appointed unto him by God.

Job 21:7              [Job] Wherefore do the wicked live, become old, yea, are mighty in power?

                8            Their seed is established in their sight with them, and their offspring before their eyes.

                9            Their houses are safe from fear, neither is the rod of God upon them.

                10          Their bull gendereth, and faileth not; their cow calveth, and casteth not her calf.

                11           They send forth their little ones like a flock, and their children dance.

                12          They take the timbrel and harp, and rejoice at the sound of the organ.

                13          They spend their days in wealth, and in a moment go down to the grave.

                14          Therefore they say unto God, Depart from us; for we desire not the knowledge of thy ways.

                15           What is the Almighty, that we should serve him? and what profit should we have, if we pray unto him?

(Psalm 73:1-16)

Weakness of Law - Ignorance of Law Enforcement - Dilemas

Hab. 1:4               Therefore the law is slacked, ... therefore wrong judgment proceedeth.

Psa. 37:35          I have seen the wicked in great power, and spreading himself like a green bay tree.

Psa. 73:12           Behold, these are the ungodly, who prosper in the world; they increase in riches.

1Kings 3:25       And the king said, Divide the living child in two, and give half to the one, and half to the other.

Eccl. 4:1              on the side of their oppressors there was power; but they had no comforter.

Mat. 5:25            Agree with thine adversary quickly, whiles thou art in the way with him

Mat. 27:24          When Pilate saw that he could prevail nothing,

Luke 18:1-8       There was in a city a judge, which feared not God, neither regarded man:

                6            And the Lord said, Hear what the unjust judge saith.

Perverting

Robert H. Jackson: The most odious of all oppressions are those which mask as justice.

Psalm 94:20      Shall the throne of iniquity have fellowship with thee, which frameth mischief by a law?

                21          They gather themselves against the soul of the righteous, and condemn the innocent blood.

Eccl. 3:16            the place of judgment, that wickedness was there; and of righteousness, iniquity was there.

Eccl. 5:8               oppression of the poor, violent perverting of judgment and justice in a province, marvel not

Eccl. 8:14            that there be just men, unto whom it happeneth according to the work of the wicked; again...

Isaiah 1:23         Thy princes are rebellious, and companions of thieves: every one loveth gifts, and followeth after rewards: they judge not the fatherless, neither doth the cause of the widow come unto them.

Isa. 5:23              Which justify the wicked for reward, take away the righteousness of the righteous from him!

Jer. 5:28             they judge not the cause of the fatherless, yet they prosper; right of needy do they not judge.

Micah 7:2           The good man is perished out of the earth: and there is none upright among men

                3            prince and judge ask a reward; great man uttereth his mischievous desire: so they wrap it up.

Apathy - confusion

Isa. 26:7-10       Let favour be shewed to the wicked, yet will he not learn righteousness

Isa. 29:21           That make a man an offender for a word, lay a snare for him that reproveth in the gate

Isa. 59:4              None calleth for justice, nor any pleadeth for truth

Isa. 59:14            And judgment is turned away backward, and justice standeth afar off:

Jer. 5:1                 see now, if ye can find a man, any that executeth judgment, that seeketh the truth;

Delay (even God's patience)

Eccl. 8:11            Because sentence against an evil work is not executed speedily

Isa. 59:9              Therefore is judgment far from us, neither doth justice overtake us:

Jer. 12:1              Wherefore doth the way of the wicked prosper? wherefore are they happy ... treacherously?

                2            Thou hast planted them, yea, they have taken root: they grow, yea, they bring forth fruit

Hab. 1:3              Why dost thou shew me iniquity, and cause me to behold grievance?

Hab. 1:12           O LORD, thou hast ordained them for judgment; thou hast established them for correction.

                13         wherefore lookest thou upon them that deal treacherously, and holdest thy tongue

2Pet. 3:9             The Lord is not slack concerning his promise, as some men count slackness; but is longsuffering to us-ward, not willing that any should perish, but that all should come to repentance.

4. God Has Promised Justice - it is inevitable

Justice must happen after this life (for Human life and reason to have any meaning)

Job 19:25           I know that my redeemer liveth, and he shall stand at the latter day upon the earth:

                26          And though after my skin worms destroy this body, yet in my flesh shall I see God:

                27          Whom I shall see for myself, and mine eyes shall behold, and not another;

Eccl. 12:14          For God shall bring every work into judgment, with every secret thing

Mat. 12:36         every idle word that men shall speak, they shall give account thereof in day of judgment.

Luke 12:2           For there is nothing covered, that shall not be revealed; neither hid, that shall not be known.

John 5:27           And hath given him authority to execute judgment also, because he is the Son of man.

                28          for the hour is coming, in the which all that are in the graves shall hear his voice,

                29          that have done good, unto the resurrection of life; and that have done evil, unto damnation.

Heb. 9:27           And as it is appointed unto men once to die, but after this the judgment:

Rev. 20:12         And I saw the dead, small and great, stand before God; and the books were opened: and another book was opened, which is the book of life: and the dead were judged out of those things which were written in the books, according to their works.

Vengeance is part of Justice (punishment, not discernment)

Num. 35:19        The revenger of blood himself shall slay the murderer

Deut. 19:12        Then the elders of his city shall deliver him into the hand of the avenger of blood

Deut. 32:35       To me belongeth vengeance, and recompence;

Deut. 32:41       I will render vengeance to mine enemies, and will reward them that hate me.

Deut. 32:43       for he will avenge the blood of his servants, and will render vengeance to his adversaries

2Kings 9:7         that I may avenge the blood of my servants the prophets

Psa. 58:10           The righteous shall rejoice when he seeth the vengeance:

Psa. 79:10           let him be known among the heathen by the revenging of the blood of thy servants

Psa. 94:1             O LORD God, to whom vengeance belongeth, shew thyself.

Psa. 99:8            thou wast a God that forgavest them, though thou tookest vengeance of their inventions.

Psa. 149:7           To execute vengeance upon the heathen, and punishments upon the people;

Isa. 1:24              Therefore saith the Lord, I will ease me of mine adversaries, and avenge me of mine enemies:

Isa. 34:8             For it is the day of the LORD'S vengeance, and the year of recompences

Isa. 35:4              fear not: behold, your God will come with vengeance, even God with a recompence;

Isa. 47:3              I will take vengeance, and I will not meet thee as a man.

Isa. 59:17            and he put on the garments of vengeance for clothing, and was clad with zeal as a cloke.

Isa. 61:2              To proclaim the day of vengeance of our God; to comfort all that mourn;

Isa. 63:4             For the day of vengeance is in mine heart, and the year of my redeemed is come.

Jer. 5:9                Shall I not visit for these things? saith the LORD: and shall not my soul be avenged

Jer. 5:29             Shall I not visit for these things? saith the LORD: shall not my soul be avenged

Jer. 9:9               Shall I not visit them for these things? saith the LORD: shall not my soul be avenged

Jer. 11:20           But, O LORD of hosts, that judgest righteously, let me see thy vengeance on them

Nahum 1:2         God is jealous, and the LORD revengeth; the LORD will take vengeance on his adversaries

Luke 18:3           And there was a widow; and she came unto him, saying, Avenge me of mine adversary.

Luke 18:5           Yet because this widow troubleth me, I will avenge her, lest she weary me.

Luke 18:7           And shall not God avenge his own elect, which cry day and night unto him,

                8            I tell you that he will avenge them speedily.

Luke 21:22        For these be the days of vengeance, that all things which are written may be fulfilled.

Rom. 3:5            Is God unrighteous who taketh vengeance? (I speak as a man)

Rom. 13:4          for he is the minister of God, a revenger to execute wrath upon him that doeth evil.

1Thes 4:6            That no man defraud his brother: because that the Lord is the avenger of all such,

2Thes 1:8            In flaming fire taking vengeance on them that know not God

Heb. 10:30          For we know him that said, Vengeance belongeth unto me, I will recompense, saith the Lord.

Jude 1:7              Even as Sodom and Gomorrha, are an example, suffering the vengeance of eternal fire.

Rev. 6:10            And they cried How long, O Lord, holy and true, dost thou not judge and avenge our blood

Rev. 18:20         Rejoice over her; for God hath avenged you on her.

Rev. 19:2            For true and righteous are his judgments: for he hath judged the great whore, which did corrupt the earth with her fornication, and hath avenged the blood of his servants at her hand.

Personal Vengeance is wrong because God will avenge

and we never get it right.

Deut. 32:35       To me belongeth vengeance, and recompence;

1Sam. 25:26-33               the LORD hath withholden thee avenging thyself with thine own hand

Psa. 18:47          It is God that avengeth me, and subdueth the people under me.

Rom. 12:19        avenge not yourselves, for it is written, Vengeance is mine; I will repay, saith the Lord.

Heb. 10:30         Vengeance belongeth unto me, I will recompense, saith the Lord.

Anger is part of Judgment (punishment, not discernment)

Deut. 32:22       For a fire is kindled in mine anger, and shall burn unto the lowest hell,

Psa. 7:11              God judgeth the righteous, and God is angry with the wicked every day.

Nahum 1:2         God is jealous, and the LORD revengeth; the LORD revengeth, and is furious

                3            The LORD is slow to anger, and great in power, and will not at all acquit the wicked:

                6            Who can abide in the fierceness of his anger? his fury is poured out like fire,

Rom. 2:5            But after thy hardness and impenitent heart treasurest up unto thyself wrath against the day of wrath and revelation of the righteous judgment of God;

Even Collective Temporal Judgment includes anger

Deut. 29:20       then the anger of the LORD and his jealousy shall smoke against that man

Psa. 2:12             Kiss the Son, lest he be angry, and ye perish, when his wrath is kindled but a little.

Psa. 21:9             Thou shalt make them as a fiery oven in the time of thine anger:

Isa. 63:3             for I will tread them in mine anger, and trample them in my fury;

                4            For the day of vengeance is in mine heart, and the year of my redeemed is come.

                5             mine own arm brought salvation unto me; and my fury, it upheld me.

                6            And I will tread down the people in mine anger, and make them drunk in my fury,

Isa. 66:15            For, behold, the LORD will come to render his anger with fury,

Jer. 4:4               lest my fury come forth like fire, and burn that none can quench it, because of the evil

Jer. 30:23          Behold, the whirlwind of the LORD goeth forth with fury,

Jer. 36:7             for great is the anger and the fury that the LORD hath pronounced against this people.

Ezek. 5:13          Thus shall mine anger be accomplished, and I will cause my fury to rest upon them

Ezek. 7:8            Now will I shortly pour out my fury upon thee, and accomplish mine anger upon thee

Micah 5:15          And I will execute vengeance in anger and fury upon the heathen,

 

Justice demands a Hell

The concept of no punishment after this life is antithetical to the concept of Justice. Death itself is not actually punishment. And there are different calibers of death. Death in youth is not the same as death in old age. Violent death is not the same as peaceful death. Great sins demand greater punishment. Simple generic death cannot satisfy justice, because justice is not stupid, it is precise and zealous. Notwithstanding Rom 6:7 (he that is dead is freed from sin - freed is also translated justified or acquitted elsewhere) death does not free men from the due reward of their sins, but just from the power of sin over their lives. Our committed sins make demands of us after death. Victims cry out for justice long after their entire generation passes away. 

Gen. 4:10            What hast thou done? the voice of thy brother's blood crieth unto me from the ground.

1Sam. 24:12      the LORD avenge me of thee: but mine hand shall not be upon thee.

2Ki. 9:26            Surely I have seen the blood of Naboth, and of his sons, and I will requite thee,

Job 16:18            O earth, cover not thou my blood, and let my cry have no place

Psalm 9:8           And he shall judge the world in righteousness, he shall minister judgment in uprightness.

Psalms 9:12       he maketh inquisition for blood, he remembereth them: forgetteth not cry of humble.

Psalm 72:14       He shall redeem their soul from deceit and violence: precious shall their blood be in his sight.

Psalm 94:3        LORD, how long shall the wicked, how long shall the wicked triumph?

Isa. 26:21           LORD cometh to punish iniquity: earth shall disclose her blood, no more cover her slain.

Luke 18:7           And shall not God avenge his own elect, which cry day and night unto him,

Rev. 6:10            How long, O Lord, dost thou not judge and avenge our blood on them that dwell on earth?

Hell is the Common Grave, Pit, or Place of the Dead

(Hebrew word Sheol 7585, Shachath 7845, Bowr 953, Hell is a place that holds souls, and sometimes the bodies of the dead)

Gen. 35:18         And it came to pass, as her soul was in departing, (for she died)

Eccl. 12:7            Then shall the dust return to the earth as it was: the spirit shall return unto God who gave it.

Luke 12:20        But God said unto him, Thou fool, this night thy soul shall be required of thee:

Luke 23:46        Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit: and having said thus, he gave up the ghost.

 

Num. 16:30       But if the LORD make a new thing, and they go down quick into the pit 7585;

Num. 16:33       They went down alive into the pit 7585, and the earth closed upon them:

Job 11:8             It is as high as heaven; what canst thou do? deeper than hell 7585; what canst thou know?

Job 14:13            O that thou wouldest hide me in the grave 7585, that thou wouldest keep me secret,

Job 17:16            They shall go down to the bars of the pit 7585, when our rest together is in the dust.

Job 24:19           Drought and heat consume snow waters: so doth the grave 7585 those which have sinned.

Job 26:6             Hell 7585 is naked before him, and destruction hath no covering.

Psalm 16:10       For thou wilt not leave my soul in hell 7585;

Psalm 55:15       Let death seize them, let them go down quick into hell 7585: for wickedness is among them.

Psalm 116:3        The sorrows of death compassed me, and the pains of hell 7585 gat hold upon me:

Psalm 139:8      If I ascend up into heaven, thou art there: if I make my bed in hell 7585, thou art there.

Pro. 7:27             Her house is the way to hell 7585, going down to the chambers of death.

Pro. 23:14          Thou shalt beat him with the rod, and shalt deliver his soul from hell 7585.

Isa. 5:14              Therefore hell 7585 hath enlarged herself, and he that rejoiceth, shall descend into it.

Isa. 14:15            Yet thou shalt be brought down to hell 7585, to the sides of the pit.

Isa. 38:10           I said in the cutting off of my days, I shall go to the gates of the grave 7585

Isa. 57:9              And thou didst debase thyself even unto hell 7585.

Eze. 31:16           his fall, when I cast him down to hell 7585 with them that descend into the pit:

Eze. 32:21          The strong among the mighty shall speak to him out of the midst of hell 7585

Amos 9:2            Though they dig into hell 7585, thence shall mine hand take them; climb up to heaven

Mat. 5:29            and not that thy whole body should be cast into hell.

Mat. 11:23          And thou, Capernaum, which art exalted unto heaven, shalt be brought down to hell:

Luke 10:15         And thou, Capernaum, which art exalted to heaven, shalt be thrust down to hell.

Mat. 16:18          I will build my church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it.

Luke 12:5           after he hath killed hath power to cast into hell; yea, I say unto you, Fear him.

Luke 16:23        And in hell he lift up his eyes, being in torments,

Acts 2:31             He seeing this before spake of the resurrection of Christ, that his soul was not left in hell,

2Peter 2:4          cast them down to hell, delivered them into chains of darkness, reserved unto judgment;

Rev. 1:18             I am alive for evermore, Amen; and have the keys of hell and of death.

Rev. 20:14         And death and hell were cast into the lake of fire. This is the second death.

A Personal Grave is not Hell/Sheol-7585, but Qeburah-6900 or Qeber 6913, etc.

Gen.35:20          And Jacob set a pillar upon her grave: that is the pillar of Rachel's grave unto this day.

Gen. 50:5            My father made me swear, saying: in my grave which I have digged for me there bury me.

Num. 19:16        whosoever toucheth one that is slain, or a dead body, or a bone, or a grave, shall be unclean

2Sam. 3:32        they buried Abner in Hebron: the king lifted up his voice, and wept at the grave of Abner;

2Sam. 19:37      that I may die in mine own city, and be buried by the grave of my father and my mother.

1Ki. 13:30           he laid his carcase in his own grave; and they mourned over him, saying, Alas, my brother!

2Ki. 22:20         I will gather thee unto thy fathers, and thou shalt be gathered into thy grave in peace;

2Chr. 34:28      Behold, I will gather thee to thy fathers, and thou shalt be gathered to thy grave in peace,

Job 5:26              Thou shalt come to thy grave in a full age, like as a shock of corn cometh in in his season.

Job 10:19            I should have been carried from the womb to the grave.

Isaiah 53:9         And he made his grave with the wicked, and with the rich in his death;

Jer. 20:17           Because he slew me not from the womb; or that my mother might have been my grave,

Eze. 32:23         Whose graves are set in the sides of the pit, and her company is round about her grave:

Before Christ's Resurrection Hell was divided between Believers and Unbelievers

Job 3:13              For now should I have lain still and been quiet, I should have slept: then had I been at rest,

Job 3:17              There the wicked cease from troubling; and there the weary be at rest.

Job 3:18             There the prisoners rest together; they hear not the voice of the oppressor.

Isa. 57:2              He shall enter into peace: they shall rest in their beds, each one walking in his uprightness.

1Sam. 28:15       And Samuel said to Saul, Why hast thou disquieted me, to bring me up?

2Sam. 12:23      But now he is dead, I shall go to him, but he shall not return to me.

Luke 16:22         beggar died, and was carried into Abraham's bosom: rich man also died, and was buried;

                23          And in hell he lift up his eyes, and seeth Abraham afar off, and Lazarus in his bosom.

                26          And beside all this, between us and you there is a great gulf fixed:

Luke 23:43        And Jesus said unto him, Verily I say unto thee, To day shalt thou be with me in paradise.

2Cor. 12:2          I knew a man in Christ, such an one caught up to the third heaven.

2Cor. 12:4          How that he was caught up into paradise, and heard unspeakable words,

Rev. 2:7               will I give to eat of the tree of life, which is in the midst of the paradise of God.

Eph. 4:8              When he ascended up on high, he led captivity captive, and gave gifts unto men.

                9             (Now that he ascended, he also descended first into the lower parts of the earth?

                10          He that descended is the same also that ascended up far above all heavens,

Col. 2:15            And having spoiled principalities and powers, he made a shew of them openly

Psalm 68:18       Thou hast ascended on high, thou hast led captivity captive: thou hast received gifts for men

Isaiah 42:7         to bring out the prisoners from the prison, and that sit in darkness out of the prison house.

Zech. 9:11           by the blood of covenant I have sent forth thy prisoners out of the pit wherein is no water.

Hell is Justice (not arbitrary, not torture, not cruelty)

Psa. 9:17             The wicked shall be turned into hell, and all the nations that forget God.

Psa. 55:15           Let death seize upon them, and let them go down quick into hell:

Prov. 5:5             Her feet go down to death; her steps take hold on hell.

Prov. 9:18          But he knoweth not that the dead are there; and that her guests are in the depths of hell.

Prov. 15:24        The way of life is above to the wise, that he may depart from hell beneath.

Prov. 23:14        Thou shalt beat him with the rod, and shalt deliver his soul from hell.

Mat. 23:33        Ye serpents, ye generation of vipers, how can ye escape the damnation of hell?

Rom. 2:8            But unto them that do not obey the truth, but obey unrighteousness, indignation and wrath,

                9            Tribulation and anguish, upon every soul of man that doeth evil,

2Thes. 1:6          it is a righteous thing with God to recompense tribulation to them that trouble you;

2Peter 2:4          cast them down to hell, and delivered them into chains of darkness, reserved unto judgment;

Hell is Precision

Mat. 23:14         for a pretence make long prayer: therefore ye shall receive the greater damnation.

Mat. 11:22          It shall be more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon at the day of judgment, than for you.

Mat. 11:24          it shall be more tolerable for the land of Sodom in the day of judgment, than for thee.

Mat. 10:15           It shall be more tolerable for Sodom and Gomorrha in the day of judgment, than that city.

Mark 6:11           It shall be more tolerable for Sodom and Gomorrha in the day of judgment, than that city.

Luke 10:12         But I say unto you, that it shall be more tolerable in that day for Sodom, than for that city.

Lam. 4:6             For the punishment of the iniquity of my people is greater than of Sodom,

John 15:22          If I had not come and spoken unto them, they had not had sin: but now no cloke for their sin.

Rom. 2:12          sinned without law shall also perish without law: sinned in the law shall be judged by the law;

Heb. 10:29         Of how much sorer punishment, suppose ye, shall he be thought worthy,

Heb. 12:25         much more shall not we escape, if we turn away from him that speaketh from heaven:

 

(Precision also in Judgment of Believers)

Luke 12:47         knew his will, and prepared not, neither did his will, shall be beaten with many stripes.

                48          he that knew not, and did commit things worthy of stripes, shall be beaten with few stripes.

2Cor. 5:10          judgment seat of Christ; receive things done in his body, acc. to that hath done, good or bad.

Col. 3:25             But he that doeth wrong shall receive for the wrong which he hath done

James 3:1           be not many masters, knowing that we shall receive the greater condemnation.

 

Hell's Punishment is according to Works

(Judgment discerns the heart, but punishment is according to deeds, not thoughts, intents, attitude, nor inherited guilt, etc.)

Job 34:11            [Elihu] the work of a man shall he render unto him, cause man to find according to his ways.

2Chr. 6:30         Then hear thou, and forgive, and render unto every man according unto all his ways,

Psalm 62:12      Also unto thee belongeth mercy: for thou renderest to every man according to his work.

Pro. 24:12          shall not he render to every man according to his works?

Jer. 17:10            LORD search the heart, to give every man acc. to his ways, acc. to the fruit of his doings.

Jer. 11:20           LORD that judgest righteously, triest the reins and heart, let me see thy vengeance on them:

Jer. 20:12           LORD that triest the righteous, and seest the reins and the heart, let me see thy vengeance

Jer. 25:14           I will recompense them according to their deeds, according to the works of their own hands.

Jer. 32:19           to give every one according to his ways, and according to the fruit of his doings:

Mat. 16:27          For the Son of man shall come and then he shall reward every man according to his works.

Rom. 2:6            Who will render to every man according to his deeds:

Rom. 2:9            Tribulation and anguish, upon every soul of man that doeth evil,

2Cor 11:15          ministers transformed as of righteousness; whose end shall be according to their works.

2Tim. 4:14         Alexander the coppersmith did me much evil: the Lord reward him according to his works:

Rev. 2:23           I am he which searcheth the reins and hearts: and I will give unto you acc. to your works.

Rev. 18:6            Reward her even as she rewarded you, and double unto her double according to her works:

Rev. 20:12         the dead were judged out of those things written in the books, according to their works.

Rev. 20:13         and they were judged every man according to their works.

Hell is Fire

Deut. 32:22        For a fire is kindled in mine anger, and shall burn unto the lowest hell,

Isa. 30:33           Tophet is ordained of old; the breath of the LORD, like a stream of brimstone, doth kindle it.

Isa. 33:14           Who among us shall dwell with the devouring fire? who with everlasting burnings?

Isa. 34:10           It shall not be quenched night nor day; the smoke thereof shall go up for ever:

Isa. 66:24           men that have transgressed: for their worm shall not die, neither shall their fire be quenched

Mat. 3:12            gather his wheat into the garner; but he will burn up the chaff with unquenchable fire.

Mat. 5:22            but whosoever shall say, Thou fool, shall be in danger of hell fire.

Mat. 18:9            enter into life with one eye, rather than having two eyes to be cast into hell fire.

Mat. 25:41          Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels:

Mark 9:43          than having two hands to go into hell, into the fire that never shall be quenched:

                44-48    Where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched.

James 3:6          and setteth on fire the course of nature; and it is set on fire of hell.

Rev. 14:10           tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the holy angels, and the Lamb:

                11           smoke of their torment ascendeth up for ever and ever: and they have no rest day nor night,

Rev. 20:10         devil was cast into the lake of fire and brimstone, tormented day and night for ever and ever.

                15           And whosoever was not found written in the book of life was cast into the lake of fire.

Rev. 21:8            But the fearful, and unbelieving, and the abominable, and murderers, and whoremongers, and sorcerers, and idolaters, and all liars, shall have their part in the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone: which is the second death.

The Fire of Hell is related to the Sin of the Sinner

Isa. 9:18              For wickedness burneth as the fire:

Isa. 26:11             yea, the fire of thine enemies shall devour them.

James 3:6          And the tongue is a fire, a world of iniquity: and it is set on fire of hell.

James 5:3           the rust of them shall be a witness against you, and shall eat your flesh as it were fire.

2Chr. 6:23         by requiting the wicked, by recompensing his way upon his own head;

Psalm 9:16         the judgment which he executeth: the wicked is snared in the work of his own hands.

Psalm 94:23      bring upon them their own iniquity, and shall cut them off in their own wickedness;

Pro. 5:22            His own iniquities shall take the wicked, and he shall be holden with the cords of his sins.

Isaiah 3:11          Woe unto the wicked! it shall be ill with him: for the reward of his hands shall be given him.

Jer. 14:16            for I will pour their wickedness upon them

Eze. 7:4                I will recompense thy ways upon thee, and thine abominations shall be in the midst of thee:

Eze. 22:31           consumed with the fire of my wrath: their own way have I recompensed upon their heads,

2 Pet. 2:12           But these, shall utterly perish in their own corruption;

Hell is Eternal Torment

2Sam. 22:6        The sorrows of hell compassed me about; the snares of death prevented me;

Psalm 116:3       The sorrows of death compassed me, and the pains of hell gat hold upon me

Dan. 12:2            shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt.

Mat. 25:46         And these shall go away into everlasting punishment: but the righteous into life eternal.

Luke 16:23        And in hell he lift up his eyes, being in torments,

                24          he cried and said, Father Abraham, have mercy on me, ; for I am tormented in this flame.

John 5:29           they that have done evil, unto the resurrection of damnation.

Rom. 2:9            Tribulation and anguish, upon every soul of man that doeth evil,

Questionable Passages Potentially about Hell

Mat. 13:42         And shall cast them into a furnace of fire: there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth.

Mat. 13:50          And shall cast them into the furnace of fire: there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth.

Mat. 8:12            cast out into outer darkness: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.

Mat. 22:13         cast him into outer darkness; there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.

Mat. 24:51          appoint him his portion with the hypocrites: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.

Mat. 25:30         cast ye the servant into outer darkness: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.

Luke 13:28        There shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth, when ye shall see yourselves thrust out.

2Peter 2:4          God spared not angels, cast down to hell, into chains of darkness, reserved to judgment;

2Peter 2:17        These are wells without water; to whom the mist of darkness is reserved for ever.

Jude 1:6              And the angels he hath reserved in everlasting chains under darkness unto the judgment

Jude 1:13            wandering stars, to whom is reserved the blackness of darkness for ever.

Rev. 17:8            The beast shall ascend out of the bottomless pit, and go into perdition:

Rev. 20:3           And cast him into the bottomless pit,  and after that he must be loosed a little season.

Appendix - Jehovah's Witness Argument

https://www.jw.org/en/bible-teachings/questions/what-is-hell/

What Is Hell? Is It a Place of Eternal Torment?

The Bible’s answer

Some Bible translations use the word “hell” for the Hebrew word “Sheol” and the matching Greek word “Hades,” both of which refer to the common grave of mankind. (Psalm 16:10; Acts 2:27) Many people believe in a fiery hell, as shown in the religious artwork accompanying this article. However, the Bible teaches otherwise.

Those in hell are unconscious and so cannot feel pain. “There is no work nor devising nor knowledge nor wisdom in Sheol.”—Eccl. 9:10.

Good people go to hell. The faithful men Jacob and Job expected to go there.—Gen. 37:35; Job 14:13.

Death, not torment in a fiery hell, is the penalty for sin. “He who has died has been acquitted from his sin.”—Rom. 6:7.

Eternal torment would violate God’s justice. (Deut. 32:4) When the first man, Adam, sinned, God told him that his punishment would simply be to pass out of existence: “Dust you are and to dust you will return.” (Gen. 3:19) God would have been lying if he were actually sending Adam to a fiery hell.

God does not even contemplate eternal torment. The idea that he would punish people in hellfire is contrary to the Bible’s teaching that “God is love.”—1 John 4:8; Jer. 7:31.